Posted By: Tony Onwujiariri January 3, What are Molecular Orbitals? It is clear that ions are held together by electrostatic attraction in an electrovalent or ionic bond, but it is less easy to understand why a shared pair of electrons should hold two atoms together. There are two ways of viewing the problem.
In chemistry , a molecular orbital is a mathematical function describing the location and wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule. This function can be used to calculate chemical and physical properties such as the probability of finding an electron in any specific region. The terms atomic orbital and molecular orbital [a] were introduced by Robert S. Mulliken in to mean one-electron orbital wave functions. In an isolated atom , the orbital electrons' location is determined by functions called atomic orbitals. When multiple atoms combine chemically into a molecule , the electrons' locations are determined by the molecule as a whole, so the atomic orbitals combine to form molecular orbitals. The electrons from the constituent atoms occupy the molecular orbitals.
Students start the undergraduate quantum chemistry course with incomplete knowledge and many conceptual difficulties about quantum-chemical concepts. Difficulties with other related concepts are revealed also. Some promising strategies for instruction and suggestions for secondary and general chemistry curricula are discussed.
To review from Chapter 1, this is a differential equation in which the first and second terms on the right represent the kinetic and potential energies:. So as a first approximation we will assume that the s, p, d, f, etc. We can then allow these wavefunctions to interfere constructively and destructively as we bring the atoms together to make bonds.