Paper-1 is conducted to test the teaching and research ability of the candidates. Questions asked in Paper-I are based on reasoning ability, reading comprehension, divergent thinking, and general awareness. The certificate for Lectureship will be valid for a lifetime while that for JRF will be valid for a period of three years. Candidates can apply to be Lecturers, of the subject that they have selected for the exam in UGC recognized universities using these certificates. The eligibility criteria consist of details like age limit and academic qualifications. This makes the task of preparation easy for the candidates.
Under ISI theory, the process makes local economies, and their nations, self-sufficient. ISI refers to the development economics policies of the 20 th century. Countries initially implemented ISI policies in the global south Latin America, Africa, and parts of Asia , where the intention was to develop self-sufficiency by creating an internal market within each country. Nevertheless, developing countries slowly began to reject ISI in the s and s after the rise of global market-driven liberalization, a concept based on the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank 's structural adjustment programs. ISI theory is based on a group of developmental policies. The foundation for this theory is composed of the infant industry argument, the Singer-Prebisch thesis, and Keynesian economics.
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Autarky is the characteristic of self-sufficiency , usually applied to societies, communities, states and their economic systems. Autarky as an ideal or method has been embraced by a wide range of political ideologies and movements, especially left-wing ideologies like African socialism , mutualism , war communism ,  council communism , Communalism , Swadeshi , syndicalism especially anarcho-syndicalism and leftist populism , generally in an effort to build alternative economic structures or to control resources against structures a particular movement views as hostile. Conservative , centrist and nationalist movements have also adopted autarky in an attempt to preserve part of an existing social order or to develop a particular industry.